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Friday, November 16

Thursday, June 9

  1. page Immigrant vs. Involuntary Minorities edited ... Classroom Implications An implication with involuntary minorities is that they tend to have …
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    Classroom Implications
    An implication with involuntary minorities is that they tend to have problems in school, perform below grade level, and have higher dropout rates (Garcia, 2002, p. 147). Teachers may need to find ways to recognize the cultures of involuntary immigrants within their classroom and school. The may need help seeing the positives associated with school and with building their motivation and self-esteem.
    Ogbu J. & Simon (1998) say that “Teachers should avoid basing expectations about an individual’s school performance and behavior on group membership. In essence, teachers should never judge students based on these assumptions they should merely keep them in mind while teaching.
    There are many ways to make voluntary as well as involuntary immigrants feel like an integral part of the classroom and the community. Teachers and educators must strive to include not only the students but their parents/families as well, to school functions. Getting the parents involved and feeling like they are important to the school can often not only change the parents/family’s negative mindsets and feelings toward the school, it can in turn, also change the student’s mindsets as well. Teachers can even plan some kind of a lesson that integrates voluntary/involuntary minority student’s cultures to show them that they are valued and accepted at school.
    Ogbu J. & Simon (1998) stress that “teachers need to show students by word and deed that they believe in their students, that their culture is worthy of respect, and that succeeding in school will leave their identity intact. Garcia (2002) poses a list of helpful ideas that help make involuntary immigrants feel valued such as: initiating mentors, acknowledging parental and language and culture, family school communication, promoting family and cultural groups in school, home support for teaching and learning, and accepting the fact that institutions are not the only knowledge broker in society.

    Reference:
    Garcia, E. (2002). Student cultural diversity: Understanding and meeting the challenge. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
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    10:21 am
  2. page Acquisition vs. Learning edited ... Critique: The first critique of Krashen's learning/acquisition hypothesis centers on the fact…
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    Critique:
    The first critique of Krashen's learning/acquisition hypothesis centers on the fact that it has never been proven that human beings actually have what is called a "subconscious". It is merely a theory, albeit a widely regarded and accepted one, and as such has not been proven to be conclusive or irreducible. On language acquistion and Krashen, Freeman and Freeman write, "The second way of developing language is what Krashen calls acquistion. In contrast to learning, acquisition is subconscious." (pg. 35). The very currency of the term and concept "subconscious" is debatable. The very idea of a student who, as the authors write, "may not even be aware" while acquiring language is not above being refuted. In plausible support of this assertion, Freeman and Freeman write, "Since language is so complex, linguists have not been able to describe the order of acquisition of the different part of language in sufficient detail so that teachers could use the order to create a sequence of lessons..."(pg. 37). On considering these two points, perhaps Krashen's theory deserves less that the "sacred cow" status that it has been accorded.
    Another important critique is that Krashen doesn't feel that there is a need to provide grammar lessons or other type of language instruction in the classroom (i.e., "learning"). However, we now understand that explicit instruction of language (in the context of meaningful use for communicative purposes) is very important for students to reach high levels of language proficiency, especially in terms of academic language.
    Freeman, D.E. & Freeman, Y.S. (2004). Essential Linguistics. Portsmouth, NH: Henemann.
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    9:55 am
  3. page Input Hypothesis edited ... References: Diaz-Rico, L.T. & Weed, K.Z. (2010). The Cross-Cultural, Language, and Academ…
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    References:
    Diaz-Rico, L.T. & Weed, K.Z. (2010). The Cross-Cultural, Language, and Academic Development Handbook, Fourth Edition.
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    NH: Heinemann.
    Classroom Implications
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    & Weed, 2010)..2010). However, this
    The input theory is helpful for the English learners’ acquisition individually and situation of the same language level. It is important to combine the input hypothesis with the grammatical learning in the real classroom.
    In terms of implications for the classroom, it is important for teachers to offer input that is challenging enough for learners, but that is still comprehensible. This can be done through the use of the following strategies:
    Modify teacher talk (e.g., more pauses., slower rate of speech, simpler vocabulary and sentence strutures)
    Student-centered teaching (e.g., collaborative activities)
    Frequent use of visuals
    Opportunities for students to express their ideas
    Limit the length of lecture-type lessons
    Tap into relevant background knowledge

    References:
    Díaz-Rico, L. T. & Weed, K. Z. (2010). The Cross-Cultural, Language, and Academic
    Development Handbook, Fourth Edition.Boston, MA: Pearson p58
    ...
    New York:
    Pergamon Press.
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    9:49 am
  4. page Affective Filter Hypothesis edited ... /Principles_and_Practice/index.html. Classroom Implications ... (Wright, 2010). . Refe…
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    /Principles_and_Practice/index.html.
    Classroom Implications
    ...
    (Wright, 2010). .
    Referencs:

    The major classroom implication from the affective filter hypothesis is that teachers should maintain a low-anxiety, non-threatening atmosphere in the classroom. This can be done by using a variety of strategies (e.g., games, songs, cooperative tasks), using humor, increasing the home-school connection, respecting students' L1 and home cultures, etc.
    References:

    Wright, W. (2010). Foundation for teaching English language learners research, theory, policy, and practice. Philadelphia, PA: Caslon Publishing
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    9:40 am

Thursday, May 26

  1. page Monitor Hypothesis edited ... Classroom Implications Teachers of language learners need to make sure that the classroom en…
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    Classroom Implications
    Teachers of language learners need to make sure that the classroom environment for their learners is comfortable and safe for the learners to use their newly acquired language. When this is the case, students will be able to produce more language and slowly develop their monitor with guidance from their teacher and classmates. Over correction of the language learners as well as inauthentic language, and a large quantity of grammar activities will make it difficult to develop a monitor.
    Teachers should:
    --encourage students to be "optimal monitor users" (to use the monitor when appropriate and when it doesn't interfere with communication).
    --teach grammar through meaningful activities in the context of authentic communication
    --model proper grammar use.
    --not over-correct learners
    --create a low anxiety atmosphere and allow beginning learners time to go through their "silent period."

    Critique
    The successful results of the Canadian students in the French immersion program caused Swain to question Krashen’s “argument that comprehensible input was ‘the only true cause of second-language acquisition’ (Krashen 1984: 61)” (2008) Swain proposed that instead of language being a “medium of data collection,” (2008) it is its own source of language learning. When students recognize that their output is incorrect, seek feedback on their output, and imitate others they are forming a new understanding of their language skills and seeking an improved way to communicate their meaning. The process of “creating comprehensible output facilitates their language acquisition.” (Wright, 2010, p. 41)
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    4:08 pm
  2. page Interactional Hypothesis edited ... Non Native Speaker: Sorry, can you say that again? I don’t understand it. 3. Self-repetition …
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    Non Native Speaker: Sorry, can you say that again? I don’t understand it.
    3. Self-repetition or paraphrase-
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    right now.
    Reference:
    Ellis, R. (1999). Learning a second language through interaction. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
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    Critique of the Interactional Hypothesis (Michael Long)
    Despite the fact that the interactional hypothesis makes a very compelling argument as a theory of second language acquisition, its benefits have yet to be proven. Many studies have been conducted to try and prove that the use of negotiation will increase English language proficiency, but the data is not strong enough to demonstrate its value. Long took a native English speaker and a language learner and observed their interactions to see what assisted them in their conversations and found that negotiating for meaning was key. However, the subjects in the study were volunteers that were willing to work with each other for the sake of the study.
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    and learning. TheIn "real" (non-testing situations), native speakers in the classroomoften may feel
    ...
    the language learners.learners, and unwilling to help them out.
    Ellis, R. (1991) “The Interaction Hypothesis: A Critical Evaluation.”
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    3:55 pm
  3. page Output Hypothesis edited ... Wright, W. E. (2010). Foundations for teaching English language learners: Reseach, theory, pol…
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    Wright, W. E. (2010). Foundations for teaching English language learners: Reseach, theory, policy, and practice. Philadelphia: Caslon Publishing.
    Classroom Implications
    Swain (1995)mention(1995) mentions that the second language learnerlearners not only
    ...
    amount of input vocabularyinput, but also needshould be pushed to joinproduce the language.
    Teachers should include activities that create
    a lot of in class participationmeaningful and interactive experience using the language to buildcommunicate needs, wants, and ideas. These lessons should be based on "output" activities that emphasize reading, writing, listening, and speaking as often as possible. Meaningful conversations and activities that require the target language.
    By creating
    language to complete a pushing learning environment, teacher deliverytask require much more output than memorizing vocabulary, for example. By developing a context for the message precisely. Thelanguage through conversation and/or interactive writing activities, students were being pushed by teacher which processedhave more chances to make mistakes and learn from them and are more motivated to use the skills they participated in.have learned. Swain refers to dialogue as both a means of communication and a cognitive tool to use when language problems are encountered. The act of using dialogue and high engagement conversation and writing activities require students to be creative in their use of language.
    Reference:
    Wright, W. (2010). Foundations for teaching English language learners: Research, theory, policy, and practice. Philadelphia: Caslon Publishing
    Hinkel, E. (2005). Handbook of research in second language teaching and learning. Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Maria's note: You need a reference for Swain (1995)
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    3:52 pm

Thursday, May 19

  1. page Sociocultural Theory applied to Language Development edited Sociocultural Theory applied to Language Development (Swain & Deters, Lantolf) Explanation of…
    Sociocultural Theory applied to Language Development (Swain & Deters, Lantolf)
    Explanation of Main Features
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    Language is one of these tools,viewed as a tool of the mind.mind, an active part of cognitive development. The idea is that you have to produce spoken or written language in order to better understand concepts.
    Sociocultural theory
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    importance of reflectionfactors that affect a studentsstudent's actions and
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    second language learnerslearner's motivation will
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    is needed.
    References:
    Swain, M.,
    The learner isn't independent from context when learning a second language. Instead, the learner's history, motivations, and experiences will affect their second language acquisition (Swain & Deters, P. (2007). “New” mainstream SLA theory: Expanded and enriched. Modern Language Journal, 91(5), 820–836.2007).
    Classroom Implications
    Language needs be used, not just in writing, but socially. In the classroom, interactions such as think-pair-share and group discussions, can help students understand language concepts. Any activities that get students talking about what they are reading, even when it is about their emotions, helps them comprehend and learn. As the teacher, it is also important to understand the histories of your students, in order to better help you understand their motivations for learning a new language. What their motivations are, and how they fluctuate, has a strong impact on how well they learn language. In addition, it is important to understand that in this theory, learning is related to becoming part of the community. So, if you have a new student join your class partway through the school year, they will need to become part of the community before they can become full learners. The students' identities affect their access to the various communities in the classroom, and it is essential as the teacher to give students time to establish an identity and become part of the classroom communities (Swain & Deters, 2007).
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    11:21 pm
  2. page Audio-Lingual Method (ALM) edited ...  The Audio-Lingual Method (ALM), which comes from the Behaviorist school of thought (Mize &a…
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    The Audio-Lingual Method (ALM), which comes from the Behaviorist school of thought (Mize & Dantas-Whitney, 2007), is based on contrastive analysis. The native language and second language are described and the similarities and differences noted. The slightest differences are compared, down to a phoneme. Students are then taught the second language using rote dialogues and verbal drills, based on these differences. There is no focus on the meaning, but rather the student repeating the sounds and words correctly (Freeman & Freeman, 2004, p. 83).
    ...
    Freeman, 2004, pg.p. 245). It
    ...
    p. 2).
    Critique
    The Audio-Lingual method was created under the assumption students would develop good language habits by completing drills and exercises. Students were to memorize and recite words, phrases, and dialogues, imitating the teacher verbatim. Emphasis was placed on correct pronunciation, with meaning and grammar being secondary. Students were learning to pronounce phrases and sentences correctly in a new language, but minimal attention was given to cognitive and meaningful communication (Freeman, 2004, pp. 83, 244). In addition, the dialogues that were used were hard to translate into practical use outside of the academic world. Students need context while learning new words, forms, and structures. Meaningless sentences and practices will not transform into complex, higher level skills (Mize & Dantas-Whitney, 2007). This is where the Audio-Lingual Method suffers the most.

    References
    Freeman, D. E. & Freeman, Y. S. (2004). Essential linguistics. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
    Kelly, J. G. (1970). Liberal education, the language requirement and the audio-lingual method. Wichita State University Foreign Language Summary, 5, 2-6.
    Mize, K, & Dantas-Whitney, M. (2007). English language development in K-12 settings: Principles, cautions and effective models. ORTESOL Journal, 25, 17-24.
    Critique
    Stemming out of the Behaviorist era, Audio-Lingual method was created under the assumption students would develop good language habits by completing drills and exercises. Students were to memorize and recite words, phrases, and diaolouges, mocking the teacher verbatim. Emphasis was placed on correct pronunciation, with meaning and grammar being secondary. Students are learning to pronounce phrases and sentences correctly in a new language, bu minimal attention was given to cognitive and meaningful communication (Freeman, 83, 244). In addition, the dialogues that were used were hard to translate into practical use outside of the academic world.
    References:
    Freeman, D. E. & Freeman, Y. S. (2004). Essential Linguistics. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

    (view changes)
    11:06 pm

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